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Everything about drippers

Everything about drippers and drippers

Today, in the field of agriculture and horticulture, the desire to use drip irrigation has greatly increased. There are many different reasons for this. However, to implement a drip irrigation system, many things must be observed and different equipment must be purchased.

One of the most important and practical components in a drip irrigation system is the drippers that form the water outlet and the result of all the designs, plumbing and effort is displayed by the drippers.

Today, due to the wise use of limited agricultural water resources, the use of drip irrigation pattern is obvious. Drip irrigation is a type of irrigation pattern in which water is poured only in the area around the plant and around the roots. This irrigation model has the highest efficiency and the least water loss and evaporation.

In this irrigation model, water is usually reached to the plant by an irrigation strip or pipe and sprayed to the plant by a dripper.


What is a dripper? What are its uses and benefits?


Agricultural drippers or drippers play a very important role in the drip irrigation system. Due to the fact that the drippers are in the front line of drip irrigation. Drippers are responsible for watering and fertilizing trees and plants.

So the location of the drippers is very important. Because if the watering to the plant stops, the tree or the plant will dry up completely, or if we find out soon, the fruits of the plant will be seriously damaged.

Therefore, choosing a draper is very important and we must be very sensitive in choosing the right dripper and choose the best dripper. If you choose a suitable and quality dripper, watering and fertilizing will be done accurately in a sufficient and uniform amount. The result is that all trees and plants grow uniformly, water, fertilizer and other materials are used optimally and all of them are significantly saved.

Drippers are small pieces made of quality polymers with silicone diaphragms. Most drippers are designed as a self-cleaning PC and when the water comes out of the agricultural dripper, it spins quickly inside the dripper and washes the dripper, preventing the sediment from closing inside the dripper and clogging it. The shell of the draper is anti-UV and is resistant to sunlight.


What is a dripper? What are its uses and benefits?


Advantages of Dripper


1- Increase efficiency and effectiveness


2- Increasing the yield of garden and greenhouse products


3- Saving water consumption and correct and optimal use of water


4- Reducing salinity


5- Reducing labor force and reducing related costs


6- Convenience and ease of agricultural operations


7- Resistant to fertilizers, toxins and chemicals


A superior draper is a draper that has the highest priority in terms of resistance to clogging and hydraulic parameters and in terms of resistance to sunlight.


Advantages of Dripper


Different types of emitters or drippers


Drippers are classified according to their design and the method they use to adjust the pressure. You can drill a very small hole in the drip irrigation pipe and use this method for water outlet and dripper. But this method is not always a good solution and may even waste the cost.


So it is better to choose your actors well from the beginning. Drippers are very small devices that are mounted on pipes to get a certain amount of water out of it. These drippers reduce and regulate the amount of water consumed.



Dripper with long duct


Drip irrigation systems with long ducts are sometimes used in the side paths of the drip irrigation system. This type of dripper has a golden and winding path to get water out. The disadvantages of this type of dripper are its high probability of clogging and blockage, high maintenance and replacement costs, economic inefficiency and non-repairable.


Plate dripper


In a plate dripper, the dripper is made like a box, that is, by matching several plates, each perpendicular to the other. In a plate dripper, when water enters it, it spins on the inner and transverse plates and comes out of a hole at the bottom as a drop.


Multi-opening dripper


This dripper, as its name implies, has several water outlets. The openings are connected to a narrow pipe. These openings are able to move water a few meters further. Multi-mouth drippers are used for orchards, trees and vineyards that need more water.


Button dripper


These types of drippers are made of a very small opening, about one millimeter, which must be installed on irrigation pipes and in designated areas. Among the types of drippers, this type has a lower price and is also easy to install.


Button dripper 


Types of drippers in terms of pressure dependence


Another category that exists for different types of drippers is pressure-dependent and water-independent drippers. In drip irrigation systems, there are factors that reduce water pressure during irrigation. From this day on, it is essential to have drippers that work independently of water pressure.


Pressure-regulating or pressure-independent drippers are usually more expensive than simple drippers. Most of the time, regular or pressure-dependent drippers are better options. Pressure-independent drippers are commonly used in areas with a height difference of more than 1.5 meters.


So if you have a hill in your farm or garden life and you want to equip it with a drip irrigation system, you have to use pressure-independent drippers. In this type of drippers, the outlet pressure of the drippers is automatically adjusted regardless of the water pressure in the irrigation system. Pressure drippers usually work better for short, smooth routes and will not work in fields where pressure drop is possible.


Types of drippers in terms of pressure dependence


Types of drippers in terms of output flow


Drippers and emitters are also classified in terms of output flow. The first category is manual drippers and the second category is automatic drippers in which the output flow is adjusted manually or automatically.


Hand drippers


Drippers are also classified in terms of output flow, the first category being manual drippers. These drippers have a simpler and more advanced structure than other types. As it is known, the main difference between these two types is that their output flow is automatic.


In manual drippers, it is up to you to adjust the outlet flow, which you must adjust using the screw built into it. Obviously, in large gardens where the area covered by the drip irrigation system is high and the number of these drippers is naturally high, the use of these drippers is a mistake.


Of course, these drippers have two important advantages over their automatic type. The first advantage of these drippers is that by changing the water pressure, you can control the output water by adjusting the outlet flow rate so that your land benefits from uniform and uniform irrigation. The second advantage is that they are economical and cost less than automatic drippers.


Automatic drippers


The second category of emitters in terms of output flow is its automatic type. These draperies are usually distinguished by the number written on them. The automaticity of these types of drippers means that their output flow is predetermined. In this case, if the pressure of the drip irrigation system drops, the dripper will automatically control the amount of water outlet or shut it off completely.


With these types of drippers, you will automatically have uniform irrigation and no longer need to spend a lot of time adjusting them, which is a smart choice for a wider farmland. The only disadvantage of automatic drippers, unfortunately, is their higher price than the first batch.


Clogged irrigation drippers


One of the most important problems of the drip irrigation system is the clogging of the drippers. These clogs affect the uniformity of the output. It can also reduce system performance if left unchecked.


Because the outlets of the drippers are small, they are sometimes blocked by grains of sand, rust, or plant parts. Sometimes the roots of trees go in drippers in search of water and cause clogging.


Fight against dripper clogging


The best way to prevent dripper clogging is to use a proper filtration system. Also, the penetration of the root into the drip hole can be easily solved by continuous irrigation and keeping the root area moist. If the root area is wet, the root will no longer enter the drip hole to search for water. Adding some herbicides can also prevent roots from entering.


The presence of sand in water can be solved with appropriate filters. You should clean the filters regularly as sand particles and other materials get caught in the filter. More acute clogging problems are usually caused by iron and sulfur deposits. Chlorine may solve some of these problems.

Adjusting the pH can prevent the formation of carbonate and phosphate deposits in water containing bicarbonate. Bacterial jellies can also be dissolved by injecting hypochlorite.


Research divides clogging factors into two categories. The first group of physical factors and the second group of chemical factors. These studies have shown that the cause of cramps in most cases is physical, and physical cramps often cause chemical cramps. In this case, by using a suitable filtration system, it is possible to prevent both physical clogging and chemical clogging.


Fight against dripper clogging 


What should we pay attention to when choosing drippers?

Choosing the right dripper is one of the most critical steps in designing a drip irrigation system. The selection of drippers is usually done by trial and error and requires experience and it is not possible to write a general instruction about it and sometimes even have to change the dripper.

When choosing a dripper, you should pay attention to the following:

- Amplitude of Dubai changes according to the limits of construction changes

- Relationship between flow and pressure of the dripper provided by the manufacturer.

- Flow equation - pressure

- Appropriate operating pressure range

- Sensitivity to clogging, it is better to choose drippers that have self-washing properties

- Percentage of wetted surface

- Permissible pressure changes

- Water purification system

- Cost


Among the above factors, the percentage of wetted surface and the sensitivity of the drippers are the two most important factors in choosing the appropriate dripper.


The choice of a dripper also depends on other factors such as soil type, plant water requirement, drip discharge, water quality and land roughness. After considering these factors, another important and mainly influential factor should be considered. The costs of the dripper as well as the characteristics of the dripper are on the costs of the pipe network and water treatment system.


Another point in choosing a dripper is to meet the plant's water needs. The type and number of drippers should be such that they wet 33 to 66% of the horizontal section of soil in the active root development zone.


What should we pay attention to when choosing drippers?


Optimal maintenance of agricultural drippers


Checking the drippers for clogged holes is the most important thing to do during system operation. The flow of the drippers should be checked regularly.


• If a dripper is taken along the lateral (tree tubes), replace that dripper, but if more drippers are blocked, the cause should be investigated from the beginning of the lateral.


• To reduce the formation of iron deposits in the drippers, add sulfuric acid to the irrigation water.


• If there is a risk of obstruction of the drippers or tubes by living organisms such as algae, fungi and bacteria, they should be eliminated by chlorination.


• In order to distribute the pressure evenly in the system and of course the uniform flow of the drippers, it is necessary to use pressure regulating drippers.


During drip irrigation, salts accumulate below the soil surface soaked by the dripper. After this process and when it rains, salts enter the root environment and cause it to become saline. To prevent this, the system should be turned on when it starts to rain so that the salts do not enter the root environment.

The most common acids used to remove sediments are hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, and sulfuric acid. Among them, hydrochloric acid is less used due to the poisoning it causes to the plant and phosphoric acid is less used due to disturbing the plant's nutritional balance. Therefore, sulfuric acid is the most suitable acid for acid washing due to its lower limitations.


An ideal dripper should have the following characteristics:


- Durable


- Low cost


- Ability to work with relatively low flow so that for all emitters, despite changes in construction, the expected pressure difference due to friction drop and the difference in height and changes due to water temperature, is almost constant.


- The duct should be relatively large and self-cleaning to prevent clogging.


Optimal maintenance of agricultural drippers


How many drippers should we choose for our plants?


Depending on the type, size and age of our plants, we should choose different arrangements and number of drippers. For annual plants that need to create a moist strip along the planting row, direct arrangement of one row is very effective. This arrangement is not recommended for situations where the distance between the trees is more than 3 meters.


The arrangement of multi-branched, annular and zigzag sprinklers is used in garden irrigation. Two-row straight arrangement is used in old gardens where the trees are very old.


In a drip irrigation system that is correct, the drip irrigation bulbs should overlap. For this purpose, the distance between the drippers is considered to be 80% of the wet diameter at a depth of 15 to 30 cm from the soil surface. The number of drippers for each tree can be selected by trial and error. But in general, the table below can help us determine the initial number of drippers


How many drippers should we choose for our plants?

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